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By Philoponus

It is a post-Aristotelian Greek philosophical textual content, written at an important second within the defeat of paganism by means of Christianity, advert 529, whilst the Emperor Justinian closed the pagan Neoplatonist institution in Athens. Philoponus in Alexandria was once a super Christian thinker, steeped in Neoplatanism, who became the pagans' rules opposed to them. right here he assaults the main religious of the sooner Athenian pagan philosophers, Proclus, protecting the distinctively Christian view that the universe had a starting opposed to Proclus' eighteen arguments on the contrary, that are mentioned in eighteen chapters. Chapters 1-5 are translated during this quantity.

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That, even if one concedes that Plato’s hypothesis of Forms is Chapter 2, Sections 1-2 33 true, it is not also true, as Proclus thinks, that they have their being in being patterns, since Plato refers to them as substances. 4. That, if it is not the essence of the Form of the world, in relation to which [the world] has come to be, to be a pattern, no further necessity remains, even if the pattern in relation to which the world has come to be is eternal, for the world too to exist always. 5. That, even if one were to suppose that the Forms are not substances but the creative principles in accord with which things have come to be, not even then is there any need for created things to coexist together with the creative principles; on the contrary, the necessity is rather that the principles of things should pre-exist them.

And if what is created is in all respects inferior to its creator – in substance, in power and in activity – it certainly must also be as a consequence inferior in its very existence. At any rate, we observe no [process of] generation, whether natural or artificial, in which the cause does not pre-exist49 its effect. For the parallels they adduce for the world being co-everlasting with God, [by which] they show, as they suppose, that certain effects are coexistent with their causes, have nothing in common, as I see it, with the [case] under investigation.

And this being so, it is ridiculous to ask why more things do not exist; for, given that the infinite cannot emerge in actuality, the same puzzle will still remain, no matter how many more things one hypothesises to exist in addition to the things that [currently] exist. So in this way it is necessary that the number of things be finite. And, again, things superior to those that exist have not come to be because it is absolutely necessary that things brought into existence by the Creator be inferior to him.

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